人工智能如何改变人才获取 How Artificial Intelligence Is Changing Talent Acquisition现在大家都在关注招聘AI，并就如何改变招聘方式进行了大量的讨论。招募人工智能是下一代软件，旨在改进或自动化招聘工作流程的某些部分。
经济的改善：最近的经济收益创造了一个候选人驱动型市场，这使得人才竞争比以往更加激烈。这一竞争只会继续增加 - LinkedIn调查的 56％的人才招聘领导者认为他们的招聘数量将在2017年增长。
How Artificial Intelligence Is Changing Talent Acquisition
AI for recruiting is on everyone’s mind these days with a lot of talk on how it’s going to transform recruiting. Artificial intelligence for recruiting is the next generation of software designed to improve or automate some part of the recruiting workflow.
Interest in AI for recruiting has been sparked by three major trends:
The improving economy: The recent economic gains have created a candidate-driven market that’s made competing for talent tougher than ever. This competition will only continue to increase – 56% talent acquisition leaders surveyed by LinkedIn believe their hiring volume will grow in 2017.
The need for better technology: Although hiring is predicted to increase, 66% of talent acquisition leaders state their recruiting teams will stay the same size or even shrink. This means time-constrained recruiters need better tools to effectively streamline or automate a part of their workflow, ideally for tasks that are the most time-consuming.
The advancements in data analytics: As technology becomes fast and cost-effective enough to collect and analyze vast quantities of data, talent acquisition leaders are increasingly asking their recruiting teams to demonstrate data-based quality of hire metrics such as new hires’ performance and turnover.
The growing popularity of AI for recruiting represents exciting opportunities for recruiters to enhance their capabilities but there’s also a lot of confusion about how to best leverage it.
To help you make sense of it all, here are the three most promising applications for AI for recruiting.
Application #1: AI for candidate sourcing
Candidate sourcing is still a major recruiting challenge: a recent survey found 46% of talent acquisition leaders say their recruiting teams struggle with attracting qualified candidates.
AI for candidate sourcing is technology that searches for data people leave online (e.g., resumes, professional portfolios, or social media profiles) to find passive candidates that match your job requirements.
This type of AI for recruiting streamlines the sourcing process because it can simultaneously search through multiple sources of candidates for you. This replaces the need to manually search them yourself and potentially saves you hours per req. The time you save sourcing can be spent attracting, pre-qualifying, and interviewing the strongest candidates instead.
Application #2: AI for candidate screening
When 75-88% of the resumes you receive are unqualified, it’s easy to see why resume screening is the most frustrating and time-consuming part of recruiting. For high-volume recruitment such as retail and customer service roles, most recruiting teams just don’t have the time to manually screen the hundreds to thousands of resumes they receive per open role.
AI for screening is designed to automate the resume screening process. This type of intelligent screening software adds functionality to the ATS by using post-hire data such as performance and turnover to make hiring recommendations for new applicants.
It makes these recommendations by applying the information it learned about existing employees’ experience, skills, and other qualifications to automatically screen and grade new candidates. This type of technology can also enrich resumes by using public data sources about previous employers and candidates’ social media profiles.
AI for resume screening automates a low-value, repetitive task and allows recruiters to re-focus their time on higher value priorities such as talking and engaging with candidates to assess their fit.
Application #3: AI for candidate matching
Candidate matching can be an even bigger challenge than sourcing: 52% of recruiters say the hardest part of their job is identifying the right candidates from a large applicant pool.
AI for candidate matching uses an algorithm to identify the strongest matches for your open req. Matching algorithms analyze multiple sources of data such as candidates’ personality traits, skills, and salary preferences to automatically assess candidates against the job requirements.
For example, a LinkedIn job posting ranks candidates by matching the skills on your job description to applicants’ skills on their LinkedIn profiles. Talent marketplaces use matching algorithms to match their community of candidates to open roles. These talent marketplaces usually cater to specific candidate skill sets such as software development or sales.
AI for matching is used to identify the most qualified candidates from those who have opted-in and are either actively looking for a new role or are very open to a new opportunity. This means recruiters don’t need to waste time trying to attract passive candidates who just aren’t interested in a new role.
那么现在这个域被称为人们的分析，它已经成为一个快速增长的核心业务举措。一项题为“ 高影响力人物分析 ”的研究报告由Deloitte在去年11月由Bersin完成，发现69％的大型组织拥有人员分析团队，并积极构建与人员相关数据的综合存储。
Fredrick Taylor, an industrial engineer, started this trend in 1911 when he published his report Scientific Management, which studied the movement and behaviour of factory workers in steel mills. Since then companies have deployed thousands of engagement surveys, studied the characteristics of top leaders, done countless reviews of retention and turnover, and built massive human resources data warehouses. All in an effort to figure out “what can we do to get more out of our people?”
Well now this domain is called people analytics and it has become a fast-growing, core-business initiative. A study, entitled High-Impact People Analytics and completed last November by Bersin by Deloitte, found that 69 per cent of large organisations have a people analytics team and are actively building an integrated store of people-related data.
Why the growth and why the business imperative? Several technical and business factors have collided to make this topic so important.
Firstly, organisations have more people-related data than ever before. Thanks to the proliferation of office productivity tools, employee badge readers, pulse surveys, integrated enterprise resource planning systems and monitoring devices at work, companies have vast amounts of detailed data about their people.
Companies now know who people are communicating with, their location and travel schedules, their salary, job history and training plans. New tools for organisational network analysis, built into email platforms, can tell leaders who is communicating with whom, new tools for audio and facial recognition identify who is under stress, and video cameras and heat sensors can even identify how much time people spend at their desks.
It could be argued that much of this information is confidential and private, but most employees don’t mind organisations capturing this data, as long as they know it is being done to improve their work experience, as shown in 2015 Conference Board research, Big Data Doesn’t Mean Big Brother. While European Union General Data Protection Regulation standards, enforceable from May 25, will put the burden of privacy and governance on HR departments, employers are stepping up to this and treating such data with great care.
Secondly, as a result of having access to all this data, companies can now learn important and powerful things. Not only are executives being forced to report on topics such as diversity, gender pay equity and turnover, but they can also now use people analytics to understand productivity, skills gaps and long-term trends that might threaten or create risk in their business.
One organisation, for example, found incidents of fraud and theft were “contagious”, causing similar bad behaviour among other employees on the same floor within a certain distance. Another is using sentiment analysis software to measure “mood” in the organisation and can identify teams with high-risk projects just from the patterns of their communication.
Many organisations now study turnover and can even predict it before it occurs by monitoring email and social network behaviour, enabling managers to coach high performers before they resign. Organisations now use analytics and artificial intelligence or AI to decode job descriptions, identifying words and phrases that create biased recruitment pools and prevent gender and racial diversity. Manufacturers use people analytics to identify workers who are likely to have accidents, while consulting firms can predict who is likely to be burnt out from too much travel and automotive companies now know why certain teams get projects done on time when others are always late.
AI is, therefore, entering the domain, giving it even more power and scale. A new AI-based people analytics tool sends anonymous emails to a manager’s peers asking simple questions to assess managerial skills. Through its carefully designed algorithms, it gives managers an unthreatening set of recommendations and has improved managerial effectiveness by 8 per cent in only three months.
For human resources departments, people analytics is now the number-one reason companies want to replace or upgrade their HR software, according to the Sierra-Cedar 2017 HR Systems Survey.
But for chief executives, chief financial officers and chief operating officers, it’s even more important. When a sales team is behind its quota attainment or a store’s sales numbers fall behind, why wouldn’t a leader ask “what’s different about the people, practices and managers at those teams that we may be able to address?” Or an even bigger question is “if we want to grow our business by acquiring a given company in Germany, what will the cultural and organisational impact be?” These critical strategic questions can all be answered by people analytics.
The history of this discipline is tactical and somewhat arcane. For years industrial psychologists led the effort and focused primarily on employee engagement and turnover. Today, however, the industry is taking on a new light, refocusing its energy on operational, sales, risk and performance measures. The technology tools are here and companies have AI engineers ready to analyse the data in a powerful and predictive way. And analysts say this domain will grow for years to come; remember that for most businesses, labour costs are the largest and most controllable expense on the balance sheet.
The bottom line is clear: people analytics can now become a strategic competitive advantage. Companies that focus in this area can out-hire, out-manage and out-perform their competitors.
聊天机器人：聊天机器人的简称，聊天机器人在人才获取方面越来越多。与苹果的Siri或亚马逊的Alexa一样，招聘中的聊天机器人使用人工智能（例如，机器学习 - 见下文）来理解问题并作出回应。Chatbots可以在不同的平台上使用，包括电子邮件，消息应用程序和通过您的申请人跟踪软件。Chatbots旨在模拟与您就业网站的访问者的对话，并正在迅速成为高容量招聘的基本技术工具。聊天机器人有效地使用，为您的招聘过程添加更吸引人的互动元素。今年早些时候进行的一项调查发现，在申请过程中，超过一半的候选人愿意与聊天机器人进行互动。
图灵测试：图灵测试是由科学家阿兰·图灵（Alan Turing）在1950年设想的，前提是“机器可以想象？今天，它指的是人工智能的潜力，以说服人们，而不是一个机器与人互动。其中最成功的例子是第三次获得2017年Loebner奖（基于图灵测试）的Mitsuku聊天机器人，但尚未说服评委是人类。 随着工作场所的自动化程度的提高，这是一个与AI有关的术语。
Algorithms : An algorithm is a set of rules to be followed in a problem solving situation or calculation. Algorithms take large amounts of data generated during the hiring process and transform it into information that HR can use in candidate selection. In a previous study, candidates recruited via algorithms remained in their job 15% longer than those hired by HR. Algorithms help to improve candidate selection and reduce the potential for a bad hire.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) : Often referred to as the ‘fourth industrial revolution’, artificial intelligence (AI) is a machine that is capable of imitating intelligent human behaviour, which includes making decisions and performing basic tasks such as problem solving, planning and learning. AI automates repetitive and mundane admin tasks, including screening and applicant updates throughout the hiring process. It is also behind the rise in chatbots and the use of video screening.
Chatbots : Short for chat robot, chatbots are becoming more prolific in talent acquisition. Like Apple’s Siri or Amazon’s Alexa, chatbots in recruitment use artificial intelligence (eg, machine learning - see below) to comprehend questions and respond. Chatbots can be used across different platforms, including e-mail, messaging apps and through your applicant tracking software. Chatbots are designed to simulate conversations with visitors to your careers site and are rapidly becoming an essential tech tool for high volume recruitment. Used effectively, chatbots add a more engaging and interactive element to your hiring process. A survey carried out earlier this year found that over half of candidates are comfortable interacting with chatbots during the application process.
Gamification : Gamification applies the common elements of game playing to other areas of online activity, including marketing. In recruitment it is frequently used by graduate employers, including Lloyds Banking Group, Deloitte and in PwC’s popular Multipoly to attract young talent and create a more engaging candidate experience. Incorporate gamification into your recruitment process through your HR technology.
Machine learning : Similar to artificial intelligence, machine learning provides AI with the algorithms that make it more intelligent. In hiring, machine learning can reduce your time to hire and is used to automate candidate screening, often utilising the data available in your recruitment analytics relating to your most successful hires. Sophisticated machine learning algorithms in HR software can be used to evaluate the potential cultural fit of a candidate through language choice and even facial expressions.
People analytics : People analytics combines data and analysis to gain insight into a range of issues related to your employees, including leadership, performance management and recruitment. For more insight, please see our previous article which provides a more detailed introduction to people analytics.
Sentiment analysis : It may not be a term you are familiar with but sentiment analysis interprets the effect that language has on people, whether negative, positive or neutral. In recruitment it can be used to analyse the impact of the wording of your job posts. For example, last we year we reported that by replacing the word ‘hacker’ with ‘developer’ in their job posts, social media platform Buffer saw an increase in the number of female candidates applying to their vacancies. HR analytics in your recruitment software provide more insight into how the use of specific words can deter talent from apply to your jobs. Software which uses sentiment analysis can also suggest more suitable words to attract a more diverse talent pool.
The Turing Test : The Turing Test was conceived by scientist Alan Turing in 1950 based on the premise 'can machines think?' Today it refers to the potential for artificial intelligence to convince people they are interacting with a person rather than a machine. One of the most successful examples is the Mitsuku chatbot which has been awarded the 2017 Loebner Prize (based on the Turing Test) for the third time but has yet to convince the judges it is human. It's a term you may hear more of in relation to AI as automation in the workplace rises.