贵公司是否准备好进行人力资源分析 Is Your Company Ready for HR Analytics?
作者：Bart Baesens是比利时鲁汶的KU Leuven教授，也是英国南安普顿南安普顿大学管理学院的讲师
但是，如何利用大数据和分析来深入了解贵公司的另一组关键利益相关者：您的员工？虽然我们看到许多公司加大了对人力资源分析的投入，但我们还没有看到该领域的许多成功案例。由于人力资源分析是业务分析应用程序中的“新手”，我们相信其从业者可以从将分析应用于以客户为中心的领域中获得的经验教训中大大受益 - 从而避免了许多新手错误和昂贵的初学者陷阱。
第1课：建模，衡量和管理员工的网络动态。在我们自己的研究中，我们发现客户之间的关系（例如社会关系，与同一商家进行的信用卡交易，或公司之间的董事会成员关系）在解释和预测集体行为（如客户流失，客户响应）方面非常有意义。营销外展或欺诈。我们相信，这些原则可以很容易地用于在人力资源分析中收获一些悬而未决的成果。特别是，可以构建一个网络 - 员工作为节点，并根据诸如（匿名）电子邮件交换，联合项目，主机托管和人才相似性等因素与他们之间的链接进行构建，并且可能对最近这样的连接的加权进行加权。然后可以利用该网络来了解新员工融入您的员工网络的顺利程度;
第2课：大数据和分析并不神奇。与任何新技术一样，从一开始就设定适当的期望非常重要。虽然它们可以成为有价值的工具，但分析技术并不是解决公司所有关键任务和困难人力资源决策的灵丹妙药。毕竟，几乎只要分析人力资源模型投入生产，它就会变得过时，因为它的生态系统（包括但不限于公司战略，员工组合和宏观经济环境）经常会发生变化。因此，人力资源最终用户使用他或她的商业智慧，经验以及对问题和组织的了解来批判性地解释，反映，调整和操纵分析模型的结果，这一点至关重要。例如，如果您的分析模型告诉您，您的招聘和解雇政策完全没有 - 或甚至是歧视性的，该怎么办？你使用错误的选择标准或正在寻找不可能的？最近客户流失可以追溯到特定员工的离职？任何意外但有效的分析结果都应该以认真和深思熟虑的方式进行。显然，这需要人力资源经理具有既知情又开放的心态。
第3课：分析人力资源模型应该做的不仅仅是提供统计绩效 - 他们应该提供商业见解。在任何业务环境中部署分析模型时，典型的新手错误是对统计性能（如拟合，相关，R平方等）和过于复杂的分析模型的盲目痴迷。统计绩效很重要，但分析性人力资源模型应该做得更多。另外两个重要的绩效标准是模型可解释性和合规性。
Bart Baesens是比利时鲁汶的KU Leuven教授，也是英国南安普顿南安普顿大学管理学院的讲师。他还是“ 大数据世界中的分析：数据科学及其应用基本指南”一书的作者（John Wiley＆Sons，2014）。Sophie De Winne是KU Leuven的副教授。Luc Sels是KU Leuven的经济学和商业学院教授和院长。
Is Your Company Ready for HR Analytics?
Although many companies have been investing heavily in big data and analytics, there have been few success stories in applying analytics to human resources. But that may be about to change.
Big data and analytics are omnipresent in today’s business environment. What’s more, new technologies such as the internet of things, the ever-expanding online social graph, and the emergence of open, public data only increase the need for deep analytical knowledge and skills. Many companies have already invested in big data and analytics to gain a better understanding of customer behavior. In fact, due to the introduction of various regulatory guidelines, some of the most mature analytical applications can be found in customer-focused areas in insurance, risk management, and financial fraud detection.
But what about leveraging big data and analytics to gain insights into another group of your company’s key stakeholders: your employees? Although we see many companies ramping up investments in HR analytics, we haven’t seen many success stories in that area yet. Because HR analytics is “the new kid on the block” in business analytics applications, we believe its practitioners can substantially benefit from lessons learned in applying analytics to customer-focused areas — and thus avoid many rookie mistakes and expensive beginner traps.
Based upon our research and our consulting experience with customer-focused analytics, we offer four lessons about how to successfully leverage HR analytics to support your strategic workforce decisions. More specifically, we will juxtapose some of our recent research and industry insights from customer analytics against HR analytics and highlight four important spillovers.
Lesson 1: Model, measure, and manage your employee network dynamics. In our own research, we have found that ties between customers (such as social ties, credit card transactions made with the same merchants, or board membership ties between companies) are very meaningful in explaining and predicting collective behavior such as customer churn, customer response to marketing outreach, or fraud. It is our belief that these principles can be easily used to harvest some low-hanging fruit in HR analytics. In particular, a network can be constructed — with employees as the nodes and with the links between them based upon factors such as (anonymized) email exchanges, joint projects, colocation, and talent similarity, and possibly weighted for how recent such connections were. This network can then be leveraged to understand how smoothly new hires will blend into your workforce network; it also can be used to quantify the optimal mix, from a performance perspective, between behaviors that bring cohesiveness to the employee network and those that bring diversity.
By the same token, when laying off or firing employees, it is important to understand the social influence and impact of an employee in order to prevent viral effects or talent drain from happening to your network or company. Employees who serve as social influencers or community connectors within your organization’s network should be carefully approached when making firing decisions to avoid functionally disconnecting essential parts of your network.
Lesson 2: Big data and analytics are not magic. As with any new technology, it is important to set appropriate expectations from the outset. While they can be valuable tools, analytics techniques are not a panacea for all of your company’s mission-critical and difficult HR decisions. After all, almost as soon as an analytical HR model is put into production, it becomes outdated, since its ecosystem (including but not limited to company strategy, the employee portfolio, and the macroeconomic environment) is constantly subject to change. Hence it is of key importance that the HR end user critically interprets, reflects, adjusts, and steers the outcomes of the analytical models using his or her business acumen, experience, and knowledge of the problem and organization. For example, what if your analytical model tells you that your hiring and firing policy is not at all sound — or is even discriminatory? That you are using the wrong selection criteria or are searching for the impossible? That the recent loss of customers can be traced back to the departure of a specific employee? Any unexpected yet valid analytical findings should be approached in a careful and thoughtful way. Obviously, this requires HR managers with a mindset that is both informed and open.
Lesson 3: Analytical HR models should do more than provide statistical performance — they should provide business insights. A typical rookie mistake when deploying analytical models in any business context is a blind obsession with statistical performance (such as fit, correlation, R-squared, etc.) and overly complex analytical models. Statistical performance is important, but analytical HR models should do more. Two other important performance criteria are model interpretability and compliance.
Interpretability means that any HR decision based upon analytics should be properly motivated and can be simply explained to all stakeholders involved. This quest for simplicity discourages the use of overly complex analytical models that focus more on statistical performance than on proper business insight.
Another key performance criterion concerns model compliance. Safeguarding regulations, privacy, and ethical responsibilities is crucial to successfully deploying HR analytics. This is especially important in HR applications. Analytical models should always be interpreted with caution, and gender equality and diversity should be respected when selecting the data to build your analytical HR models.
Lesson 4: Backtest the impact of your analytical workforce models. In customer analytics, the average lifespan of a model is two to three years, and we have no reason to believe that this will be different in HR analytics. However, given the impact of HR decisions on the organization and on individuals, it is important that analytical models in HR are constantly backtested by contrasting the predictions against reality, so that any degradation in performance can be immediately noticed and acted upon. For example, from a hiring perspective, both the pre-hire effectiveness (which recruitment channels give us the candidates with the right profile?) and post-hire effectiveness (which recruitment channels gave us the best candidates?) should be constantly evaluated.
We believe the time is right to boost your investments in HR analytics. And once your HR analytics efforts have matured, we look forward to the next transformative step for organizations. That, we think, will take place when organizations can bring together findings from HR analytics with those from customer analytics. Then companies can more fully understand the relationships between their two key sets of human assets: employees and customers.
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Bart Baesens is a professor at KU Leuven in Leuven, Belgium, and a lecturer at the University of Southampton School of Management in Southampton, U.K.; he is also the author of the book Analytics in a Big Data World: The Essential Guide to Data Science and its Applications (John Wiley & Sons, 2014). Sophie De Winne is an associate professor at KU Leuven. Luc Sels is a professor and dean of the faculty of economics and business at KU Leuven.
现代和合规背景调查的领先提供商Checkr今天宣布了一项新技术，该技术可持续更新可能影响共乘驾驶员驾驶资格的犯罪记录。Checker Continuous Check由Uber设计，动态识别可能不合格的记录，以帮助确保驾驶员继续满足优步的安全标准。
Checkr首席执行官Daniel Yanisse表示： “ 凭借当今的按需劳动力，我们需要超越静态背景报告，进行动态筛选。通过持续检查，Checkr为共乘产业创造了新的安全标准将提供关于某人背景变化的重要见解，这可能会影响他们的工作资格。“
“ 安全对优步至关重要，我们希望确保驾驶员持续不断地达到我们的标准，”优步安全与保险副总裁Gus Fuldner说。“ 这种新的连续检查技术将加强我们的筛选过程并提高安全性。”
Checkr Creates Dynamic Monitoring Tool to Elevate Safety in Ridesharing
Checkr, the leading provider of modern and compliant background checks, today announced new technology that provides continuous updates about criminal records that may affect ridesharing drivers’ eligibility to drive. Checkr Continuous Check, which was designed with Uber, dynamically identifies potentially disqualifying records to help ensure drivers continue to meet Uber’s safety standards.
“With today's on-demand workforce, there's a need to move beyond static background reports to dynamic screenings," said Daniel Yanisse, CEO of Checkr. "Through Continuous Check, Checkr is creating a new standard of safety for the ridesharing industry and beyond that will provide critical insight into changes in someone's background that may affect their eligibility to work."
Uber is the first company to adopt the technology. Using data sources that cover most new criminal offenses, Continuous Check provides notifications to Uber when a driver is involved in criminal activity. Uber can then investigate any potentially disqualifying information, such as a new and pending charge for a DUI, to determine whether the driver is still eligible to drive with Uber. This new technology allows Uber to continuously enforce its safety standards between annual reruns of background checks.
“Safety is essential to Uber and we want to ensure drivers continue to meet our standards on an ongoing basis,” said Gus Fuldner, Vice President of Safety and Insurance at Uber. “This new continuous checking technology will strengthen our screening process and improve safety.”
Designed initially to meet the stringent requirements of the ridesharing industry, Continuous Check will be available to all Checkr customers in Fall 2018.
Checkr’s mission is to build a fairer future by improving understanding of the past. Our platform makes it easy for thousands of customers to hire millions of people every year at the speed of the gig economy. Using Checkr’s advanced background check technology, companies of all sizes can better understand the dynamics of the changing workforce, bring transparency and fairness to their hiring, and ultimately build a better future for workers. For more information please visit: www.checkr.com.
10 Trends in Workforce Analytics （英文）
Workforce analytics is developing and maturing. These are the 10 major trends for the near future.
1. From one time to real-time
Many workforce analytics efforts start as a consultancy project. A question is formulated (“How do our employees experience their journey?”), many people are interviewed, data is gathered, and with the help of the external consultants a nice report is written and many follow up projects to redesign the employee journey are defined.
A one-time effort is nice, but it might be more beneficial to develop ways to gather more regularly and maybe even real-time feedback from candidates, employees and other relevant groups.
The survey practice is changing. We see organizations using several approaches:
The classic annual or bi-annual employee survey, for a deep dive.
Weekly, monthly or quarterly pulse surveys to gather more frequent feedback. A few questions, often varying the questions per cycle. Some more advanced pulse survey solutions are adaptive: they ask more questions to people when they sense there are issues (“How was your week?”. If the answer is “Very Good”, the survey is finished, if you answer, “Not so good”, there are some follow-up questions). Pulse surveys can also be easily connected to the important “moments that matter” for the employee experience.
Continuous real-time mood measurement. Innovative solutions in this area are still scarce, especially if you want to measure in a passive non-obtrusive way. Keencorp is an example, they analyze aggregated e-mails and can report on the mood (and risks) in different parts of an organization.
In my article Employee mood measurement trends, you can find an extensive overview of mood measurement providers.
2. From people analytics to workforce analytics
Currently, the general opinion seems to be that people analytics is a better label than HR analytics.
Increasingly the workforce is consisting of more than just people. Robots and chatbots are entering the workforce. The first legal discussions have started: who is responsible for the acts of the robots?
If we’re also analyzing robots, we’re moving from people analytics towards workforce analytics. Robot wellbeing and robot productivity is a nice domain for HR to claim.
3. More transparency
This overview of workforce analytics trends cannot be complete without a reference to GDPR. GDPR is fueling a lot of positive developments, one of them being a lot more transparency. About what kind of data is collected, how it is used, and how algorithms are used to make decisions about people.
The issue of data ownership is related. It is expected that employees will no longer accept that they cannot own their own personal data. Employees need to have the possibility to show their data to their potential next employer as evidence for their productivity and engagement.
4. More focus on productivity
In the last years, there has not been a lot of focus on productivity. We see a slow change at the horizon.
Traditionally, capacity problems have been solved by recruiting new people. This has led to several problems. I have seen this several times in fast growing scale-ups.
As the growth is limited by the ability the find new people, the selection criteria are (often unconsciously) lowered, as many people are needed fast. These new people are not as productive as the existing crew. Because you have more people, you need more managers. Lower quality people and more managers lowers productivity.
Another approach is, to focus more on increasing the productivity of the existing employees, instead of hiring additional staff, and on improving the selection criteria.
Using workforce analytics, you can try to find the characteristics of top performing people and teams, and the conditions that facilitate top performance.
These findings can be used to increase productivity and to select candidates that have the characteristics of top performers. When productivity increases, you need less people to deliver the same results.
A related read on this topic are the 3 reasons to stop counting heads.
5. What is in it for me?
A lack of trust can influence many workforce analytics efforts. If the focus is primarily on efficiency and control, employees will doubt if there are any benefits for them.
Overall there is a shift to more employee-centric organizations, although sometimes you can doubt how genuine the efforts are to improve the employee experience.
Asking the question: “How will the employees benefit from this effort?” is a good starting point for most workforce analytics projects. It also helps to create buy-in, which becomes increasingly important with the introduction of the GPDR.
6. From individuals to teams to networks
Many workforce analytics projects today are still focused on individuals. What are the characteristics of our top performers? How can we measure the individual employee experience? How can we decrease absenteeism?
Earlier, I gave an overview to what extend current HR practices are focused on teams.
As you can see in the table, most of the practices are still very focused on the individual. Workforce analytics can help to improve the way teams and networks function in and across organizations. The rise of Organizational Network Analysis is one of the promising signs.
7. Cracks in the top-down approach
The tendency to implement changes top-down, is still common.
We like uniformity and standardization. In our central control room, we look at our dashboard, and we know we need to act when the lights are turning from green to orange.
HR finds it difficult to approach issues in a different way. Performance management is a good example. Changing the performance management process is often tackled as an organization-wide issue, and HR needs to find the new uniform solution.
In line with the trend called “the consumerization of HR”, employees are expected to take more initiative. Employees are increasingly tired of waiting for the organization and HR, and want to be more independent of organizational initiatives.
If you want feedback, you can easily organize it yourself, for example with the Slack plug-in Captain Feedback. A simple survey to measure the mood in your team is quickly built with Polly (view: “How to measure the mood in your team with Slack and Polly“). Many employees are already tracking their own fitness with trackers like Fitbit and the Apple Watch.
Many teams primarily use communication tools as WhatsApp and Slack, avoiding the officially approved communication channels. HR might go with the flow, and tap on to the channels used, instead of trying to promote standardized and approved channels.
How can workforce analytics benefit from the data gathered by on their employee’s own devices? If it is clear, what the benefits are for employees to share their data, they might be able to help to enrich the data sets and improve the quality of workforce analytics.
8. Ignoring the learning curve
In their book “Making HR measurement strategic”, Wayne Cascio and John Boudreau presented an often-quoted picture, with the title “Hitting the “Wall” in HR measurement”. The wall was the wall between descriptive and predictive analytics.
There are many more overviews with the people analytics maturity levels. Generally, the highest level is predictive analytics.
Patrick Coolen of ABN AMRO Bank recently mentioned a next level: continuous analytics, and he introduced a second wall, the wall between predictive analytics and continuous analytics.
As predictive analytics seems to be the holy grail, many HR teams want to jump immediately to this level. Let’s skip operational reporting, advanced reporting and strategic analytics. We can leapfrog, ignore the learning curve, and jump to the highest level in one step.
For many teams, ignoring the learning curve does not seem to be a sensible strategy. Maybe it is better to learn walking before you start running.
9. Give us back our time!
Recently I spoke to HR professionals from big multinationals who were involved in a “Give us back our time” projects.
In their organizations, the assignment to all staff groups was: stop using (meant was: wasting) more and more time of the employees and managers, please give us some time back!
An example that was mentioned concerned performance management. In this organization, they calculated that all the work around the performance management process for one employee costed manager and employee around 10 hours (preparation, two formal meetings per year, completing the online forms, meeting with HR to review the results etc.).
By simplifying the process (no mandatory meetings, no forms, no review meetings, just one annual rating to be submitted per employee by the manager), HR could give back many hours to the organization – to the relief of both managers and employees.
Big HR systems generally promise a lot. But before the system can live up to the high expectations, a lot of work needs to be done. Data fields must be defined. Global processes must be standardized. Heritage systems must be dismantled.
This results in a lot of work (and agony), for employees, for managers, for HR and for the implementation partners (who do not mind).
Workforce analytics can help a lot in the “give-us-time-back” projects, for example by some simple time-measurement. Measure the time a sample of managers, employees, and HR professionals spend on different activities, and estimate the value these activities optimizes the core activities of the organization (e.g. serving clients and bringing in new clients).
10. Too high expectations
The expectations of workforce analytics are often too high. Two elements must be considered.
In the first place, human behavior is not so easy to predict, even if you have access to loads of people data.
Even in domains where good performance is very well defined and where a lot of data is gathered inside and outside the field, as for example in football, it is very difficult to predict the future success of young players.
Secondly, the question is to what extend managers, employees and HR professionals behave in a rational way. All humans are prone to cognitive biases, that influence the way they interpret the outcomes of workforce analytics projects. Some interesting articles on this subject are why psychological knowledge is essential to success with people analytics, by Morten Kamp Andersen, and The psychology of people analytics, written by myself.
A more general thought: what if you replaced ‘Workforce analytics’ with ‘Science’? What is the role of science in HR? The puzzle is, that there are many scientific findings that have been available for a long time but that are hardly used in organizations.
Example: it has been proven repeatedly, that the (unstructured) interview is a very poor selection instrument.
But still, most organizations still rely heavily on this instrument (as people tend to overestimate their own capabilities). Why would organizations rely on the outcomes of workforce analytics, when they hardly use scientific findings in the people domain?
An interesting presentation on this topic that I recommend is by Rob Briner, titled evidence-based HR, what is it and is it really happening?
There’s a lot that’s changing in the world of work. These are the 10 trends in workforce analytics that I’m seeing today and that will likely impact the way we work in the near future.
This article is based on a keynote I gave at the Workforce Analytics Forum in Frankfurt, Germany, on April 18, 2018.
by Tom Haak
Tom Haak is the director of the HR Trend Institute The HR (Human Resources) Trend Institute follows, detects and encourages trends. In the people and organization domain and in related areas. Where possible, the institute is also a trend setter. Tom has an extensive experience in HR Management in multinational companies. He worked in senior HR positions at Fugro, Arcadis, Aon, KPMG and Philips Electronics. He holds a master’s degree in Psychology. Tom has a keen interest in innovative HR, HR tech and how organizations can benefit from trend shifts. Twitter: @tomwhaak