有关智能自动化将如何改变人力资源功能的见解Insights On How Intelligent Automation Will Change The HR Function文/ Darren Burton
麦肯锡全球研究所(McKinsey Global Institute)最近的一项研究发现，60%的职业至少有30%的构成工作可以实现自动化，而全球3%至14%的劳动力将需要转换职业类别。
As a business executive and HR leader, it’s hard to keep track of all the predictions associated with the future of intelligent automation. For example, a recent study by the McKinsey Global Institute identified that 60 percent of occupations have at least 30 percent of constituent work activities that could be automated, and that three to fourteen percent of the global workforce will need to switch occupational categories. These studies make a series of assumptions regarding the types of jobs that will be automated, the pace at which automation will occur, and the various governmental policies that will help or hinder the adoption of these types of technologies.
In today’s market, intelligent automation skills are at a premium.ISTOCK
Regardless of exact magnitude of the change, it’s pretty clear that intelligent automation is going to directly impact HR in a variety of ways—from the role it needs to play within an organization, to the services it needs to provide, to the way HR-related work actually gets accomplished. Within KPMG, as we continue to work with clients in this space and look to transform our own internal HR capability, it is safe to say that HR will play a central role in helping the organization do a few key things:
Dig deeper into how to best enable employee performance.
As much of our early experience has demonstrated, automation can eliminate repetitive tasks and potentially free up a portion of a worker’s overall day. This, of course, raises a whole range of potential questions: What should employees do with the remainder of their time? How do we provide them with the skills needed to handle different tasks? Should their performance be assessed differently? How do they “learn the basics” when basic-level tasks are now handled by an intelligent system? These are precisely the types of questions that the HR professional of the future must be able to help business leaders answer so that they can design jobs and shift roles to make the most of employees’ skills and capabilities.
Plan for a future dependent on IA skills.
In today’s market, intelligent automation skills are at a premium. As one New York Times article joked, “Salaries are spiraling so fast that some joke the tech industry needs a National Football League-style salary cap on A.I. specialists.” Figuring out the skills that are needed to develop, train, and maintain intelligent automation systems and then determining the best way to either build, buy, or borrow those skills can make the difference between spending too much or too little in this marketplace. It will also help in building a value proposition that can attract the right talent to meet a company’s current and future needs.
Prepare leaders to manage the transformation.
The opportunities offered by intelligent automation are equaled by the potential magnitude of change executives will face as they come to terms with significant shifts in their industries and business models. In addition to balancing marketplace shifts with delivery on short-term expectations, they will need to provide guidance to team members who may be going through their own personal and professional transformations. The need to set realistic expectations, involve people in the change process, and help individuals adjust to a world of digital and human labor will test the capabilities of even seasoned change leaders.
Interested in learning more about people challenges associated with intelligent automation? KPMG partners Mark Spears, Robert Bolton, and David Brown have authored two important perspectives, “Rise of the Humans” and “Rise of the Humans 2,” that provide useful insights into the topic.
Human-Centered A.I. is the Future of Talent Management
Will A.I. eliminate my job?
It’s a clickbait title most of us are now familiar with.
In recent years we’ve been met with a wave of articles and soundbites — ranging from the realistic to apocalyptic — speculating as to whether A.I. will replace human jobs, take over the world, or otherwise render Us insignificant.
Tesla CEO Elon Musk has even gone so far as to suggest that the volume of jobs that will be lost due to automation will create the need for a universal basic income.
A fear of new technology, and of the impact that that technology will have upon the job market is not new.
Technological developments that arose during the Industrial Revolution created public fear of mass unemployment (a fear that ultimately proved to be unfounded given the large number of new jobs these technologies created).
Yet the narratives have never felt quite so existential before this moment.
So what is different about A.I. that has so captured the public interest, and it seems, fear?
It seems to lie in the idea that intelligent machines will not seek to supplement aspects of our existence, but rather, replace us entirely.
Computer Scientist Subhash Kak advocates for this idea with respect to the job market in his think piece for NBC News (a piece, it is worth noting, entitled “Will robots take your job?”). The reason A.I presents a greater threat to society as we know it, he argues, is “today’s A.I. technology aims to replacethe human mind,” not simply to make industries more efficient (my emphasis).
It would be naive to ignore the reality of Kak’s argument with respect to tasks requiring learning and judgement. A.I. is already replacing human decision-making in industries such as transportation and manufacturing.
But are all applications of A.I. really aiming to replace the human mind in the workplace? And should they?
There are other views — and other technological frameworks — to be had here.
In opposition to A.I.’s “takeover” rhetoric exists a school of thought that explicitly acknowledges the benefit of partnership between humans and intelligent machines.
Fei-Fei Li, director of the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Lab, calls this approach “human-centered A.I.” — a framework for guiding the development of intelligent machines by human concerns.
At a high level, the goals of human-centered A.I. are as follows:
A.I. should aim to enhance human thought rather than replace it
A.I. should encompass the more nuanced and contextual aspects of human intellect, aided by outside fields such as psychology and sociology
The development of A.I. technology should be guided by a concern for its effect on humans
There are a number of cross-industry applications of A.I. that can be viewed within this partnership framework.
Take, for example, the development of robots used to reduce costs, time, and human-error during surgery, allowing doctors to focus on the more nuanced aspects of the surgical process. Or, developments of A.I. in agriculture, such as Blue River Technology’s “see and spray” technique for applying herbicide only where needed, saving farmers money on herbicide and delivering a more sustainable product to consumers.
But perhaps even more in contrast to the fear of a robot taking one’s job, is the increasing extent to which A.I. is being applied the field of talent management.
That is to say, A.I. is being used to actually improve the workplace and the worker experience, rather than replace the worker.
A.I. as a Tool for Improving the Workplace
In the past several years, we have seen an emergence of companies applying A.I. to problems in talent management. From Paradox.AI’s Olivia, to Beameryand Textio, its fair to say that A.I. is on HR’s radar in a way that it wasn’t 5 years ago.
What’s interesting about this trend is that unlike other industries with a stronghold in A.I., talent management has until recently been viewed almost exclusively as a “fuzzier” aspect of the business. It is an industry built on relationships, human connections, and emotional intelligence, and yet, it is being improved with A.I.
To be fair, up until now a majority of A.I. solutions for talent management have focused on the more tedious and error-prone tasks around candidate sourcing and evaluation (tedious + error-prone = a perfect opportunity for automation).
But there are also opportunities for A.I. to improve the post-hire aspects of the employee experience, and human-centric A.I. is the key.
As the marketing world has known for years, A.I. provides a unique opportunity for scaling a personalized experience. Why would you show me the same thing as everyone else, when I’m more likely to convert if you show me exactly what I want?
The same principles can be applied to the post-hire employee experience.
Employees have different skills sets and motivators. If my employer places me in an environment that is optimized for my skills and motivators, I’ll stay. If not, I’ll move on.
As the progression towards a digital workplace continues, companies also have more data about their human capital than ever before — who they are talking to, what they eat, when they’re online every day. WeWork is basing their business model around this data.
Human-centered A.I. can unleash this data to help talent leaders create a more personalized employee experience. It is in “fuzzier” domains like talent management where human-centered A.I. shines, not just for ethical reasons, but because it provides the best user experience.
At Cultivate, for example, we apply human-centered A.I. to personalize the leadership development experience for managers. Using digital communication data as a proxy for leadership behavior, we analyze and predict how managers’ actions are affecting their team, and offer suggestions for how to improve.
At no point do we attempt to stand in as a replacement for a manager, or a talent leader. Rather, like a real-life leadership coach, Cultivate offers tips and suggestions that a manager can choose to take, or not.
This is the kind of personal experience employees expect from their talent leaders, scaled with A.I. And it doesn’t need to stop at learning and development. A.I. also has high-potential to impact other aspects of the employee experience, from interviewing and on-boarding to performance reviews and off-boarding.
There is no doubt that A.I. is changing the world — and the job market — as we know it.
Industries will be disrupted. Jobs will be lost, new jobs will be created, some jobs will never be replaced.
Ethical dilemmas will be raised. They already are.
The degree of difference between aspects of human intellect and intelligent machines will become smaller.
However, with careful consideration for A.I. design that creates a sense of partnership between humans and intelligent machines, A.I. isn’t a force to be feared in the workplace, but embraced.
Cultivate helps companies leverage their digital communication data with A.I. to extract important organizational learning and unleash leadership potential.
For more information on what we are doing at Cultivate, check out our website.